Weather Monitoring

Weather is the state of the atmosphere that is driven by air pressure, temperature, and moisture differences between one place and another.  Many geospatial variables influence such weather drivers. Understandings of what weather is, what makes it change, the effect it has different applications have existed for most of human history. 


Today, weather understanding, modelling, and forecasting are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere, land, and ocean by using meteorology data collection standards and satellite observations that incorporate hardware and software.


The common sensor hardware measurements are wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, lightning, and rainfall.  Examples of common calculated measurements from such sensor measurements include due point, evapotranspiration, growing degree days, rolling averages, and accumulations.


AgricultureAir qualitySports field of play
Public noticeDrought managementNautical Navigable charting
RecreationFire fightingGround transportation
Flood warningDust controlAirports and air traffic navigation
Water resources modeling and forecastsClimate change control / researchRocket launches
Groundwater rechargeStormwaterMilitary operations
CSO (combined sewer overflow)ErosionWind energy

Sensor Measurements

Wind Speed

Air moving from high to low pressure, usually due to temperature changes. Wind speed is measured with an anemometer, a cup or propeller movement by wind, or a non-moving part acoustic or ultrasonic sensor.

Wind Direction

Reporting the compass direction or degrees from which wind originates. Measurement sensors include rotating windvane, ultrasonic measurement of sound waves propagation, to the wet finger in the air.


A quantity typically expressed in a cold to hot scale, and often measured at different levels of the Earth's atmosphere. There are many analog and digital temperature sensors with different accuracies.


Water vapor in the air and is an indicator of precipitation, dew, or fog. Measurements include absolute, relative (RH), and specific. RH is a % of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity at the same temperature.

Barometric Pressure

Pressure in the atmosphere. Similar to weight of air over the measuring point. Measurements help forecast weather troughs and frontal boundaries. Measurements are between 940 and 1040 hPa (mbar) at a defined position.

Solar Radiation / Par Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. Sensor measurements for different applications include pyranometers, net radiometers, quantum / photsynthesis (PAR), and pyrheliometers.


Many of these individual weather sensors can be combined into one design for easy installation.

Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge

Precipitation units deliver a pre-defined area in a period of time. The tipping bucket funnel design empties the water into a seesaw-like container that tips based on the water weight. Each tip is a units-of-measure.

Weighing Rain Gauge

Precipitation units over a predefined area in a period of time. A storage bin container weights the mass of water to calculate the rain fall over a period of time.